The Paleolithic Diet is a new dietary trend that has been gaining ground across the world. It is an approach to eating that is considered more biologically appropriate, as it seeks to emulate the diet consumed by our ancestors. The Paleo diet can help to promote weight loss, increase energy levels, and ease a variety of common ailments that are often exacerbated by processed food and modern dietary habits.
Many have received great benefit by adopting a partial or full form of the Paleo diet, which has contributed to its sudden increase in popularity. The Paleo diet is fairly simple to understand and implement provided you are well informed of the dietary guidelines in advance. Here is a detailed guide to help you get started on the Paleo diet. But first…
What is Paleo Diet? A Quick History Lesson
The aptly named Paleolithic diet (sometimes called the “caveman diet”) dates as far back as the Paleolithic period when humans lived on a hunter-gatherer diet consisting of predominantly meat, poultry, and seafood, as well foraged vegetables, berries, nuts, and seeds. After the dawn of agriculture, humans began consuming other food groups such as grains, legumes, and dairy, many of which are not fully digestible. In the year 1913, a man by the name of Joseph Knowles ventured off into the wilderness to experimentally live as the hunter-gathers once had. Though he didn’t exclusively hunt for his food, he did strive to live as entirely off wildly obtained food as possible.
He remained in the woods for about two months before returning to civilization to speak about his experiences. He discovered that in just a short period of time of consuming mostly wild foods, he had gained a health and vitality that had previously evaded him. He decided that a hunter-gatherer diet must be the healthiest diet for humans, as it was the diet that humans had eaten for most of their history.
Then in 1975, Walter L. Voegtin, a gastroenterologist, decided to further the experimental research of Knowles and published a book entitled The Stone Age Diet. In the book he argued that humans are biologically carnivorous and would thrive best on a diet that closely mimicked that of the Stone Age people. Though the scientific community originally rejected the concept, further research throughout the 80’s and 90’s led to the growing popularity of the Paleo diet, which is now practiced by roughly 3 million Americans. Dr. Loren Cordain has been credited with mainstreaming the diet and has published numerous scientific essays advocating its biological merit.
Premise and Rationale for the Paleo Diet – How it Works
The Paleo diet is said to be the most natural diet, as it was the diet consumed for the majority of human history. Thereby, it stand to reason that a diet that most closely resembles that of our ancestors would likewise be the most genetically appropriate diet, as it was the diet we had evolved to consume. The core concept of the Paleo diet is to fuel and energize your body predominantly with fats and proteins, rather than with carbohydrates. Early humans consumed very little carbohydrates and no processed carbohydrates, which have unfortunately begun to consume the bulk of the modern American diet.
Many grains are difficult to digest, as our digestive systems haven’t been fully adapted to them. As such, we are unable to receive much nutritional benefit since the food isn’t fully processed by our bodies. Grains also contain properties known as lectin, which prevent the absorption of other nutrients and make grains a somewhat counterproductive food source. On a Paleo diet, the person eliminates grains altogether and consumes a diet predominantly meat based, with some fruits, veggies, nuts, seeds, and eggs to supplement.
Legumes are also eliminated from the diet for the reason that they are high in carbohydrates, difficult to digest, and not a complete protein like that of meat. Similar to grains, legumes also contain lectins, which can result in nutrient malabsorption. Dairy is also eliminated on the diet, as even after 7,000 years of consumption, many humans are not able to fully digest dairy, which results in lactose intolerance.
The Paleo diet encourages people to eat as closely to that of their ancestors as possible, given that is how our digestive systems have been trained to eat over the course of thousands of years. This allows us to fully absorb the nutrients and proteins from our food, while forcing our organs and digestive system to do less work in the process.
The reality is, while humans have certainly evolved since the Paleolithic Period, our overall anatomy and genetics have changed very little. Thus, the diet that was most appropriate for our ancestors continues to be the most appropriate for us today. Advocates of the Paleo diet further propose that the majority of modern diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes are a direct result of our inability to adapt to the current dietary trends, due to our inability to properly digest many modern food sources.
Criticism of the Paleo Diet
Though the Paleo diet has been growing in popularity, many health professionals, nutritionists, and others within the scientific community are opposed to the diet. Opponents cite numerous examples of why they believe the logic for the Paleo diet to be inherently flawed. Firstly, they claim that humans have evolved since the Paleolithic era, and the diet most appropriate for our ancestors is not the most appropriate diet for modern humans.
Furthermore, dietary trends within the Paleolithic era varied greatly by region, with many groups of people subsisting on a diet considerably different than that proposed by Paleo advocates. Particularly when you take into account how much meats, fruits, and veggies have changed and evolved since the Paleolithic era, almost nothing a modern human could eat would closely resemble something eaten in the Paleolithic era.
Additionally, scientists argue that even though genetically we are remarkably similar to that of our ancestors, that isn’t to say that we haven’t evolved and adapted to our modern diets. Humans have the ability to develop minor genetic mutations in the course of just a few thousand years. In fact, while dairy was initially near impossible for humans to digest, in the course of just 7,000 years humans have developed a gene making them lactose tolerant, and thereby able to fully digest and absorb the nutrients and proteins from dairy. Thus, regardless of whether humans have changed much anatomy-wise, are bodies are quite capable of readily adapting to new foods over time.
Another important consideration is the general health of our Paleolithic ancestors. While they certainly lived on wildly obtained meat, fruits, and veggies, that isn’t to say that was the optimum diet for them either. Hunter-gatherers subsisted on such diets solely because that was all that was available to them. However, life expectancy in the Paleolithic era was considerably lower than the life expectancy of today.
Health Benefits of the Paleo Diet
The modern American diet is one that is rich in empty carbohydrates, processed sugars, trans fats, and overly processed, nutrient-depleted food items. The Paleo diet is rich in unprocessed, natural, and nutrient-dense food, enabling the dieter to get far more nourishment per calorie than on the standard American diet. Meat and seafood contain very high levels of all of the micronutrients needed to sustain humans, and they are one of the only food groups that offer complete proteins with all of the essential amino acids. Therefore, living on a diet rich in meat will be more nourishing than diets based primarily on the consumption of carbohydrates.
Furthermore, by eating biologically appropriate foods and eliminating processed foods, your body will be able to better absorb more nutrients than it otherwise would. The standard American diet is often quite depleted in nutrients such as Vitamin D. Additionally, the ratio of Omega-6 to Omega-3 fatty acids is hugely askew among most Americans. The Paleo diet, on the other hand, is one that is rich in naturally occurring Vitamin D. The foods eaten on a Paleo diet will create a more appropriate balance between Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, thereby supporting better brain health as well.
The Paleo diet consists of a far higher intake of healthy saturated fats, which can lead to improved digestion, better skin, improved cognitive function, and healthier arteries. A huge perk of the Paleo diet is eliminating chemicals from your food. Given many processed foods contain innumerable ingredients, preservatives, and unwanted chemicals, many people have minor allergic reactions to their food without even realizing it. By making the switch to an all-natural whole foods diet, many people report fewer allergies and a general improvement in overall physical well-being.
Do you have to count calories?
Many are set in the philosophy that our weight depends solely on calories consumed versus calories burned. However, this isn’t entirely true. The insulin hypothesis posits that the majority of obesity is caused by excessive consumption of carbohydrates, which raises insulin levels and leads to weight gain. By eating a low-carb diet you have better control over your insulin levels, which will allow less of the food you eat to be stored as fat. As a result, maintaining a calorie deficit isn’t essential for weight loss as long as you eliminate the foods known to increase insulin levels.
Nonetheless, when seeking to lose weight on the Paleo diet it is important to eat appropriately. While the diet consists of all healthy foods, any diet can be unhealthy when improperly implemented. To lose weight on the Paleo diet, it is important to keep your consumption of oils, nuts, eggs, and seeds to a minimum, while eating an abundance of vegetables, fruits, and lean meats.
Now that we have discussed the rationale behind the Paleo diet, we can take a look at what can be eaten on the diet. Remember that with any diet it can be healthy or unhealthy depending on your approach. Be sure to read the guidelines thoroughly and make sure you are eating the right amount of each food group to achieve optimal results.
What Should you Eat on A Paleo Diet?
Proteins – Higher Protein Intake
The Paleo diet is designed to be a low-card, high-fat, and high protein diet when compared to the standard American diet. The optimum macronutrient ratio is about 15% protein, 65% fat, and 20% carbohydrates.
– Fish and Seafood: While all seafood is permitted on the Paleo diet, it is wise to strive for seafood with the lowest mercury content. Wild caught Alaskan salmon is some of the best seafood available. Obtaining wild fish, rather than farmed fish, is usually the better option.
– Beef: Beef can be eaten on the Paleo diet, but it is best if it is grass-fed beef. Cows raised on soy and corn end up producing a fat that is lower in Omega-3’s than those raised on grass, making grass-fed beef a superior option. Avoid all heavily processed and fatty meats, such as bologna and hot dogs.
– Wild meats: All wild meat such as rattlesnake, elk, bison, venison, and boar can be eaten. In fact, wild meat is the best as it is typically leaner, higher in protein, and free of all hormones and preservatives.
– Poultry: Wild fowl is preferable due to being leaner and free of growth hormones. When eating farm raised poultry, be sure to get organic pasture-raised chicken.
– Eggs: Eggs from any bird can be eaten on the Paleo diet. Just ensure the eggs are free-range. Additionally, if you are seeking to lose weight, be sure to keep your egg consumption to six per week or less.
Carbohydrates – Lower Carb Intake and Lower Glycemic Index
On the Paleo diet, carbohydrates should only consume about 20% of your diet and be derived exclusively from vegetables and fruits.
-Vegetables: Virtually all vegetables can be eaten on the Paleo diet with the exception of potatoes. However, other starches, such as yams and squash, are permitted.
– Fruits: All fruits can be eaten on the diet. However, it is important to consume fruit in moderation, as fruit is high in sugar which can spike insulin levels. Nonetheless, fruit is a fantastic source of carbohydrates, provided your don’t go over your daily limit.
The Paleo diet encourages a high fat intake, with fats consuming about 65% of all calories consumed. For those seeking weight loss, you may wish to temporarily adjust your fat intake to meet your weight loss needs.
-Fats: Fats can be consumed in the form of healthy oils such as flaxseed oil, coconut oil, olive oil, and MCT oil. Additionally, avocado is an excellent fat source. Eggs also have a very high fat content and are rich in Omega-3’s. Though strict Paleo dieters avoid all dairy, some consume ghee as a source of animal-based fats. If you are seeking to lose weight, keep all of these fats to a maximum of four tablespoons per day.
– Nuts and seeds: All nuts and seeds are permitted on the diet. Walnuts are considered the best, as they contain the highest levels of Omega-3’s. Keep in mind that peanuts are actually not a nut but instead classified as a legume. Thus, peanuts are not allowed on the Paleo diet. For weight loss, eat no more than four ounces of nuts and seeds per day.
Concerning Grains: Grains are to be entirely omitted from the Paleo diet, as they are difficult to digest and block the absorption of other key nutrients.
Concerning Lectins: Lectins are what are known as anti-nutrients because they inhibit the absorption of essential vitamins in the body. Grains and legumes are known to contain particularly high levels of lectins and should be eliminated from the diet entirely.
Concerning Processed Food: Processed food should also be eliminated, as it is very calorie-dense and nutrient-depleted, making it an unhealthy food source. Furthermore, processed foods often contain a lot of empty carbohydrates, which can result in a spike in insulin levels. Instead, whole foods are to be consumed whenever possible. There are many recipes available for Paleo-friendly processed foods that can help to fill the cravings you may feel when switching to the Paleo diet.
Concerning Dairy: Most Paleo dieters eliminate dairy altogether, as our bodies were not initially meant to digest lactose. However, some people on the Paleo diet do advocate eating small amounts of ghee, as it is a nutrient-rich animal-based fat source.
Micronutrients – Vitamins/Minerals/Antioxidants on the Paleo Diet
Within the foods we eat, there are micronutrients, macronutrients, and antioxidants. Macronutrients are simply fat, carbs, and proteins. Micronutrients consist of all of the vitamins and minerals our bodies need to thrive. We also need antioxidants, which help to protect our body’s cells from free radicals. The Paleo diet is a very nutrient-dense diet that will enable you to meet your nutritional needs more easily.
The micronutrient content of food can rapidly degrade due to processing, excessive heat exposure, and other factors. Thereby, eliminating processed foods from your diet and replacing them with fresh, whole foods will enable you to greatly increase your daily nutrient consumption. Furthermore, meat is one of the foods with the most complete micronutrient profile. Thus, a diet rich in meat will likewise be one rich in micronutrients.
How Much of each Nutrient Should I Eat?
The amount of each micronutrient you get will depend on your specific body type. For instance, pregnant or nursing women require more nutrients in general, as they are eating for two people. They will need particularly elevated rates of iron and folate. Additionally, those who struggle with malabsorption, meaning there bodies have difficulty properly absorbing nutrients from food, will require greater nutrient quantities per day.
The Paleo diet is known for being very rich in nutrients, supplying you with far greater nourishment than the standard American diet. The Paleo diet can also help to minimize problems with malabsorption in people who eat the diet over an extended period of time. To make sure you are getting enough of all your daily values, consider tracking your nutrition. There are numerous websites available that can help you to tally your daily nutrition and ensure your needs are being met.
Many dieters advocate eating 6 meals per day, as this will help you to better control your blood sugar levels, in turn satiating hunger and cravings. However, this isn’t necessarily the best method. For those just starting out on a Paleo diet, eating frequently may help you to adjust to the diet more rapidly, as you will experience fewer cravings in the process. However, once you have adjusted to the diet it is recommended you eat three meals per day, approximately five hours apart.
In the Paleolithic era, there was no set time that our ancestors sat down to eat. Their meal times varied day-to-day depending on their ability to find food and the time they had to eat. However, research has shown some validity in eating three meals per day, spaced five hours apart. Eating five hours between meals is a short enough period that you shouldn’t feel hungry, but a long enough period to let your liver and pancreas rest from the last meal. By eating too frequently, your pancreas and liver will end up having to work overtime to keep up with the rate of food consumption, which can lead to health compilations later.
Additionally, eating breakfast within the first hour upon waking is most conducive to weight loss. By eating first thing in the morning, you help to stimulate your metabolism, allowing you to burn more calories throughout the day. Breakfast should also be the largest meal of the day, as it will give you your initial energy burst to conquer the day ahead.
Body Mass Index
The body mass index is a conventional method of determining whether or not an individual is underweight, normal, overweight, or obese. Generally speaking, the BMI is fairly accurate in determining levels of body fat. However, certain muscular or athletic types may have a high BMI when their body is lean. The BMI tends to be least accurate in older people, where body fat is often times underestimated. Nonetheless, knowing your BMI can be a helpful guide in achieving the body you desire. Having a BMI in the overweight to obese range can greatly increase you risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.
Omega 3 Fats: Fish
Paleo diet advocates promote a diet rich in Omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3’s provide innumerable benefits to the health. They can help to improve cognitive function by building brain cell membranes, as well as help to facilitate the proper clotting of the blood. Some studies have indicated that they have the potential to lower your risk of heart disease and stroke, while providing benefits for conditions like cancer, lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease.
For these reasons, eating a diet rich in Omega-3’s can lead to optimum health. Fish is one of the highest natural sources of Omega-3’s and is an essential part of a healthy diet. However, due to increased mercury levels in fish, it is important to know which type of fish to purchase. Purchasing wild caught fish, rather than farmed fish, is always a better option. Fish procured from Alaskan waters tends to have lower mercury content than in more polluted parts of the ocean. Arctic char is a form of farmed fish that is considerably less polluted than other farmed fish, making it another healthy option. Sardines are fish to eat, and they have the added benefit of being more economical. In general, strive to eat organically raised, and preferably wild caught fish whenever possible.
In addition to fish, Omega-3’s can be found in a variety of other places such as nuts, seeds, and flaxseed oil. Keep in mind that it is important to maintain proper ratios between Omega-3 fatty acids and Omega-6 fatty acids. Hunter-gathers consumed the two fats at an equal rate of 1:1. Unfortunately, due to the processed diets of today, this ratio has become skewed so that people are getting far more omega 6’s than 3’s. The Paleo diet will help you to get back to an optimum ratio.
Importance of Fiber
Fiber is an integral part of any healthy diet. There are two types of fiber: soluble and insoluble, and both are very important. Fiber provides many health benefits including helping to control blood sugar levels, lowering your risk of heart disease and stroke, lowering your cholesterol, and promoting weight loss and weight management. The foods that tend to be highest in fiber, such as grins and legumes, happen to be the ones that are omitted from the Paleo diet.
Fortunately, there are plenty of Paleo-friendly fiber rich foods for you to feast on. Vegetables are a great source of fiber, particular artichokes at 10.3 grams per serving. Many fruit are also fiber-rich such as apples with the skin, raspberries, pears with the skin, and bananas. Additionally, nuts and seeds are an excellent source of fiber. Meat, on the other hand, contains little to no fiber, which is why it is important to eat an abundance of fruit and vegetables on the Paleo diet as well. Though fiber needs vary by gender, women should get about 25 grams per day and men need 38 grams per day. Consider tracking your fiber intake at first to ensure that you are getting enough.
Some foods are acid forming whereas others are alkaline forming. Understanding and implementing appropriate ratios of acid to alkaline foods is very important in maintaining a healthy body. The Paleo diet is designed to do just that. Maintaining a proper acid to alkaline ratio is integral in maintaining healthy and strong bones and lowering your risk of osteoporosis.
Having a diet too rich in acid forming foods can demineralize bones as a result. Acid forming foods are foods like meats, cheeses, nuts, seeds, beans, grains, and processed foods. Alkaline forming foods are exclusively fruits and vegetables. Given the standard American diet is overloaded with heavily processed foods, dairy, and fatty meats, people are thereby overloading there bodies with acid, resulting in osteoporosis.
By carefully following the Paleo diet, you can get your acid to alkaline ratio back within a healthy range by eating predominantly lean meats and an abundance of fruits and vegetables. This will in turn give you stronger bones, as well as reducing heartburn, ulcers, and acid reflux. The Paleo diet contains a much healthier acidity range, thereby setting you up for good bone health down the road.
Electrolytes – Potassium and Sodium Intake
Electrolytes are an essential aspect to human health, as they promote water retention, thereby encouraging proper hydration. Electrolytes also help to promote muscle contraction. Salt and potassium are two primary electrolytes that need to be consumed regularly for optimum health. While salt is essential to the human body, the quantity in which to consume it varies greatly depending who you ask. Doctors have linked the overconsumption of salt to increased blood pressure and the American Heart Association recommends consuming no more than 1.5 grams per day.
However, many opponents argue that the link between increased blood pressure and heart disease is inconclusive, and that a human would have to consume ridiculous quantities of salt per day to actually be at risk. Nonetheless, while sodium is said to increase risk of hypertension, potassium is said to lower the risk. Thus, when eaten in conjunction, the two balance each other out. Magnesium is also excellent at balancing out salt, and is found readily in many Paleo foods. Foods such as spinach, fish, avocados, mushrooms, and bananas being particularly plentiful sources of potassium and magnesium, helping to reverse any negative ramifications of sodium intake.
Raw vs. Cooked
Advocates of the raw food movement insist that cooking foods destroys many of the nutrients, resulting in less nutrient-dense meals. They argue that in order to obtain optimum daily nutrition all foods should be consumed raw. Due to pathogens in raw meat and dairy, many in the raw food community follow a strictly vegan diet. However, while the premise of the raw food movement seems logical on the surface, they are in fact overlooking once key point.
While cooking does destroy some nutrients, it makes other nutrients more bioavailable in the process. Therefore, it is best to have a range of raw and cooked foods in the diet in order for your body to receive a wide range of all micronutrients and antioxidants. For example, cooking broccoli will destroy some antioxidants while increasing the quantity of other antioxidants. Thus, eating both raw and cooked broccoli is important for a healthy diet. Cooking tomatoes greatly increases the antioxidant content, while diminishing the Vitamin C content. Certain nutrients are less sensitive to heat like Vitamins A, E, D, and K, whereas some are easily destroyed by heat like Vitamins C and B.
Furthermore, many people find it easier to eat and digest cooked vegetables than raw. You can likely eat a far higher quantity of cooked spinach than raw spinach, which will allow you to consume more nutrients overall. However, when cooking vegetables, it is important to keep in mind the methods of cooking. Steaming tends to be the best method of cooking vegetables and results in the least nutrients lost. In terms meat, it is good to eat a variety of cooked and raw as well. Raw sushi-grade seafood is incredibly nutrient dense and good to incorporate in you’re diet. Steak, while unsafe to eat entirely raw, can be consumed safely when medium-rare to rare. It is better to undercook your meat when possible, as it will have a higher Vitamin C content than fully cooked meat. However, some meat, such as poultry, is dangerous to consume if not fully cooked.
What can I drink on the Paleo Diet?
The two things people constantly ask about is whether or not alcohol and coffee can be consumed on a Paleo diet. Obviously, our ancestors from the Paleolithic period likely didn’t consume either, but that isn’t to say they need to be eliminated from the diet altogether. The fact is, many people on the Paleo diet do enjoy alcohol and coffee on occasion. The key is consuming them both in moderation.
Coffee is consumed predominantly as an energy source for people worldwide. The standard American diet is so low in nutrients that it tends to lead to decreased cognitive function, sluggishness, and an overall mental fogginess. That is why coffee has grown increasingly popular over the years, as it provides an artificial energy source to generally unhealthy people. Many on the Paleo diet report a significant increase in natural energy as a result of more nutrient-dense foods, thereby needing little to no coffee to thrive. If you are a regular coffee drinker, consider tapering your coffee consumption off slowly to prevent caffeine withdrawal. After several months on the Paleo diet, you may soon find you no longer need it at all.
As for alcohol, though it also isn’t strictly Paleo, many tend to cheat and drink it anyway. The key is drinking alcohol in moderation. Actually, in moderation, some alcohols have tremendous health benefits, such as lowering your risk of cardiovascular disease. Though Paleolithic era people likely didn’t consume alcohol from fermented grains, such as beer and some hard liquor, it is likely they received small amounts of alcohol content from fermented fruit. Thus, if you are to drink alcohol then it is best to drink wine, as it most closely resembles that which our ancestors would have eaten.
Creator of the Paleo Diet
While the Paleo diet dates as far back as the Paleolithic era, there are many modern advocates of the diet who are credited with making it more mainstream. Dr. Loren Cordain is widely considered to be the founder of the modern Paleo diet. Publishing the widely acclaimed book and what is considered the bible of the Paleo movement, The Paleo Diet, he extensively details the research and health benefits behind a Paleolithic dietary approach.
Additionally, he has published countless scientific studies demonstrating the health benefits of the diet, which have been published in variety scientific journals including The British Journal of Nutrition, The European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, and The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. He received his Ph.D. in Health from the University of Utah in 1981. He has won countless awards throughout his career in health, including The American College for Advancement in Medicine’s annual “Denham Harmon Lecture,” in May of 2004.
Adhering to the Paleo Diet – Staying on Track
The most difficult aspect of any diet is finding the willpower to stay on track. Foods like processed sugars, processed foods, and empty carbohydrates can actually be quite addictive and it is difficult to break the habit at first. However, once you have successfully managed to break the addiction, holding steadfast to the diet becomes easier. Many find that eating numerous small meals throughout the day will help them to reduce hunger and cravings. While many Paleo advocates insist eating three meals per day is best, eating more frequently as first is a good way to ease your way into the diet.
Additionally, many cravings are caused by undernourishment. Ensure that you are receiving above adequate levels of all micronutrients and macronutrients so that your cravings will be kept at bay. Going exclusively Paleo can be tricky, which is why many adopters of the diet allow themselves the occasional cheat meal where they can eat otherwise prohibited foods. However, be careful to limit your cheat meals to no more than one or two a week.
Eating Paleo friendly starches like bananas, acorn squash, and yams can help you to limit your cravings for processed carbohydrates. While all store bought processed foods are forbidden on the Paleo diet, you can find countless recipes online for Paleo friendly “junk food” that you can make at home. This includes things like cookies, cake, ice cream, and pizza. Though, these foods will be distinctly different than what they seek to emulate, they will provide satiation for sugary or starchy cravings.
Here are a couple of books we strongly recommend you check out if you are interested in trying out the Paleo Diet.
Paleo Diet Books
Paleo Diet Recipes
Paleo Planning: A Brief Paleo Diet History: http://paleoplanning.com/brief-paleo-diet-history/
National Public Radio: Was 2013 Really the Year of the Paleo Diet?: Eliza Barclay: http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2013/12/27/257669972/was-2013-really-the-year-of-the-paleo-diet
Scientific American: How to Really Eat Like a Hunter-Gatherer: Why the Paleo Diet Is Half-Baked: Ferris Jabr: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-paleo-diet-half-baked-how-hunter-gatherer-really-eat/
Paleo Leap: The Importance of Grass-fed Meat: http://paleoleap.com/importance-of-grass-fed-meat/
Harvard School of Public Health: The Nutrition Source: Ask the Expert: Omega 3 Fatty Acids: Dr. Frank Sacks: http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/omega-3/
The Paleo Diet: Acid/ Base Balance: http://thepaleodiet.com/acidbase-balance/
The Paleo Diet: Dr. Loren Cordain: http://thepaleodiet.com/dr-loren-cordain/